The Hyksos (Amalekites) were defeated by Ahmose I of Upper Egypt with the help of Saul and David of Israel

Hyksos – Amalekites – Amu

Egypt was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. When Amenemhet III died, his daughter Sobeknefru had to become pharaoh. She only lived for 4 years (possibly 8 years) and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended.

Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep as a result of the Exodus (1446BC). This brought about the end of the 13th dynasty. Egypt became vulnerable to invasion as a result of plagues and the loss of it’s leader, it’s army, it’s slaves and it’s chariots.

The Hyksos seem to have invaded Egypt shortly after the Exodus. They may even have crossed paths with the departing Israelites shortly after they crossed the Red Sea. [1]

The Hyksos took over and ruled Lower Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period). The Hyksos were ‘foreigners’ to Egypt and are thought to have originated in Arabia. The word ‘Hyksos’ means ‘Foreigner’. They were able to take over Lower Egypt with very little resistance. [2]

Manetho attributes 4 dynasties to the Hykos (dynasties 14-17). [1] Dynasties 15 -16, at least, were synonymous with Hyksos rule of Lower Egypt. [3]

The 17th dynasty was contemporay with the 16th dynasty; but in a different part of the country (Upper Egypt).

The Hyksos were eventually defeated in an uprising lead by the family of Ahmose I from Upper Egypt. Ahmose I lost his father Seqenenre and his brother Kahmose fighting the Hyksos. The Hyksos were forced to leave Egypt and Ahmose I (Nebpehtyre) became the first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (which was the beginning of New Kingdom of Egypt as it is known). Ahmose I became the pharaoh at a very young age and was coregent with his mother Queen Aahotep in the early part of his reign.

As the Hyksos were leaving Egypt and looking for a new home, they appear to have had another encounter with the Israelites when Saul and David were ruling. [1]

The rule of the Hyksos constitutes most of Egypt’s second intermediate period (when foreigners ruled between the end of the Middle Kingdom (12-13th dynasty) and the beginning of the New Kingdom (18th dynasty)).

The Hyksos ruled in Lower Egypt for a period of around 400 years starting soon after the 13th dynasty when the Exodus of the Jews occurred. This period is contemporary with the Israelites 40 years in the wilderness and the time of the Judges in Israel.  It fits with the Hyksos being the Amalekites of the Bible in every respect.

The Amalekites / Hyksos were rulers that had Egyptian slaves. 1Samuel 30:13

The Amalekites / Hyksos came up from Egypt and attacked the Israelites with the Midianites and Philistines during the period of the Judges. 1Samuel 15:2 Judges 6:1-10 Judges 10:1-18

The Israelites had encounters with the Hyksos / Amalekites at the beginning and end of the second intermediate period. Exodus 17:8-16 1Samuel 15:1-341Samuel 27:1-12 1Samuel 30:1-31

The Hyksos were the Amalekites of the Bible

Egypt was destabilised when Moses (Amenemhet IV) went into exile as there was nobody to continue the 12th dynasty. When Amenemhet III died, his daughter Sobeknefru had to become pharaoh.  She only lived for 4 years (possibly 8 years) and when she died, the 12th dynasty ended.

Egypt suffered massive losses 40 years later under Neferhotep as a result of the Exodus (1446BC).  This brought about the end of the 13th dynasty.  Egypt became vulnerable to invasion as a result of plagues and the loss of it’s leader, it’s army, it’s slaves and it’s chariots.

The Hyksos seem to have invaded Egypt shortly after the Exodus.  They may even have crossed paths with the departing Israelites shortly after they crossed the Red Sea. [3]

As the Israelites were leaving Egypt, the met up with the Hyksos (Amalekites) as they were leaving.  The Amalekites attacked them but Joshua and his men prevailed as Moses held his arms up for the men to see on top of a hill.  The Amalekites passed by but Moses prophesied that they would always be at war with Israel until their final destruction. Exodus 17:8-16Numbers 24:20

The Hyksos took over and ruled Lower Egypt for the next 400 yrs (the second intermediate period).  The Hyksos were ‘foreigners’ to Egypt and are thought to have originated in Arabia.  The word ‘Hyksos’ means ‘Foreigner’.  They were able to take over Lower Egypt with very little resistance.  [4]

The Bible records that the Amalekites (Hyksos) would often attack Israel during the time of the Judges along with other nations such as MidianJudges 6:1-10Judges 10:1-18Judges 12:15

The ancient historian Manetho attributes 4 dynasties to the Hykos (dynasties 14-17). [3]  Dynasties 15 -16, at least, were synonymous with Hyksos rule of Lower Egypt.

The 17th dynasty was contemporay with the 16th dynasty; but in a different part of the country (Upper Egypt).

Seqenenre, the father of Ahmose I lead an uprising starting in Upper Egypt forcing the Hyksos to leave Egypt heading North.

As the Hyksos were leaving Egypt and looking for a new home, they appear to have had another encounter with the Israelites when Saul and David were ruling.

Saul attacked Amalekites / Hyksos as instructed by Samuel the last Judge of Israel.  He defeated them all the way from Havilah to Shur, near the eastern border of Egypt, not sparing any.  Saul did, however, captured the Hyksos (Amalekite) king alive (his name was Agag) and he kept their cattle as plunder.  Agag was brought to Samuel who put him to death but he was not happy with Saul for not following his instructions fully.  1Samuel 15:1-34

Later, at a time when David was fleeing from Saul, he was living in Philistine territory he raided the Geshurites, the Girzites and the Amalekites. From ancient times these peoples had lived in the land extending to Shur and Egypt. Whenever David attacked an area, he did not leave a man or woman alive, but took sheep and cattle, donkeys and camels, and clothes.  1Samuel 27:1-12

Once David’s camp was raided by some Amalekites (Hyksos) and his wives, sons and daughters were taken captive.  David and his band of 400men pursued the Amalekites and recovered all that was stolen and completely destroyed the Amalekites taking their herds as plunder.  1Samuel 30:1-31

In another battle with the Philistines Saul was critically injured but it was an Amalekite (Hyksos) that found him and helped finish him off.  1Samuel 31:1-13

The Amalekite who killed Saul took proof to David and was slain for his efforts.  2Samuel 1:1-16

David eventually wiped out the final remnants of the Amalekites in Israel and dedicated the plunder to the LORD; God of the Israelites.  2Samuel 8:8-131Chronicles 4:43

Biblical References

Exodus 17:8-16
Numbers 24:20
Judges 6:1-10
Judges 10:1-18
Judges 12:15
1Samuel 30:13
1Samuel 15:3
1Samuel 15:18
1Samuel 15:1-34
1Samuel 27:1-12
1Samuel 30:1-31
1Samuel 31:1-13
2Samuel 1:1-16
2Samuel 8:8-13
1Chronicles 4:43

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 The Hykoso identified Terry Hurlbut http://www.examiner.com/article/the-hyksos-identified
  2. Who were the Hyksos? Save-Soderbergh, t. (1951) The Hyksos rule in Egypt, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Egypt Exploration Society.
  3. Peter A Clayton Chronicle of the Pharaohs The Reign by reign record of the rulers and dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson 2006 ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9

Unwrapping the Pharaohs How Egyptian Archaeology confirms the Biblical Timeline. John Ashton & David Down. Master Books 2006. ISBN 978-0-89051-468-9ISBN 0-89051-468-2

Chronicle of the Pharaohs The Reign by reign record of the rulers and dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Peter A Clayton. Thames and Hudson 2006 ISBN 978-0-500-28628-9

[Roger Henry. Synchronized Chronology Rethinking Middle East Antiquity]

Links

[Debbie Hurn - The Amelekites - Were they the Hyksos?]

[John D Keyser The downfall of Egypt and the Amelekites of the Bible.]

[Ralph S Pacini In search of Amelek.]

[The time of the Judges in the Promised Land]

[Chart - The period of the Judges and the Amelekite / Hysos occupation of Egypt.]

[Terry Hurlbut The Hyksos Identified]

[Save-Soderbergh, T. Who were the Hyksos?

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